RESEARCH ON THE WEED CONTROL DEGREE AND GLYPHOSATE SOIL
BIODEGRADATION IN APPLE PLANTATIONS (PIONEER VARIETY)
Ersilia ALEXA, Roxana MICU, Monica NEGREA, Renata ŞUMĂLAN, Olimpia IORDĂNESCU
Abstract: In this study we follow control degree of glyphosate herbicide on weeds in apple plantations (Pioneer variety) of the Research Station Timisoara. It was also followed glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the soil by determining the amount of CO2 released by the action of microorganisms on C14 glyphosate marked isotope. Laboratory analysis of glyphosate residues in soil was made using a Liquid Scintillation TRIATHLER. Glyphosate biodegradation ability in the presence of soil microorganisms is high, so glyphosate residues remaining in soil, in terms of its use in weed combating, are minimal. Study of glyphosate biodegradation capacity in the experimental field indicates that the CO2 fraction accumulated after 50 days is 28.02% for samples exposed in the experimental field. Weather conditions, especially temperature variations between day and night, influences the activity of soil microorganisms and affect biodegraded glyphosate percentage. Chemical method of weed control consisted in: herbicide used was Roundup 3 l/ha (glyphosate isopropyl amine salt 360 g/l) and are based on chemical application on weeds, on the rows of trees, on their uptake and translocation in their organs having as principal scope the total destruction of weeds. The experimental results obtained reveal a weed combat degree of 82.98% , in the case of chemical variant, compared with control variant. The species combated mainly due to glyphosate herbicide, which is no longer found in the final mapping are: Capsella bursa-pastoris, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli, Plantago major,
Polygonum aviculare. Total combated weeds /m2 with glyphosate is 126.67.
Keywords: glyphosate, apple plantation, mineralization, microorganisms, weed control degree
UNBALANCED KARYOTYPE IN A HUMAN FOETUS DUE TO
A RECURRENT FAMILIAL TRANSLOCATION
Nicoleta ANDREESCU, Dorina STOICĂNESCU, Alina BELENGEANU, Simona FARCAŞ, Cristina POPA, Monica STOIAN, Valerica BELENGEANU
Abstract. Couples with multiple miscarriages are at risk for carrying a balanced translocation since they may produce unbalanced gametes. Chromosomal imbalances may lead to spontaneous abortions, or an offspring with multiple congenital anomalies. This report emphasizes the importance of the cytogenetic investigations in couples with recurrent spontaneous abortions. A couple was referred for cytogenetic prenatal testing because of a history of recurrent miscarriages and due to the fact that after an ultrasound examination the foetal heart rate was not perceived and the suspicion that the pregnancy stopped growing was raised. Chromosome studies of the chorionic villi from the foetus revealed a karyotype with deletion of the terminal region of chromosome 11. Analysis of the chromosomes of the couple revealed the presence of a chromosomal rearrangement, a balanced translocation (10;11) for the mother, while the father had a normal karyotype. Further investigation of the family from the mother side revealed the same balanced translocation for her mother and her brother. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using telomere probes for the short arm of chromosome 10 and the long arm of chromosome 11 was performed to better characterize the balanced state in the mother. This helped delineate the 46,XX,der(11)(11pter-->11q21::10p14-->10pter) karyotype of the foetus. This paper confirms that a chromosomal abnormality carried by one of the parents is likely to be associated with a high rate of spontaneous abortion. The diagnosis of the chromosomal balanced translocation of the genitors has significant implications for management and options in this family. Chorionic villi sampling should be offered to women who present with first-trimester spontaneous abortions and it is the most reliable method of determining the karyotype of spontaneously aborted foetuses.
Keywords: balanced translocation, miscarriage, large deletion 11q, duplication 10p
MEDICINAL PLANTS WITH ANTIOXIDANT PROPERTIES FROM BANAT REGION (ROMANIA):
A RICH POOL FOR THE DISCOVERY OF MULTI-TARGET PHYTOCHEMICALS ACTIVE
IN FREE-RADICAL RELATED DISORDERS
Diana Simona ANTAL
Abstract. Natural compounds from plants and other life forms (bacteria, fungi, marine organisms) represent a major source of molecules with medicinal properties. Among them, antioxidant substances are of particular interest. The understanding of the central role that oxidative stress holds in the progression of disorders as varied as: cardiovascular diseases, degenerative conditions, rheumatic disorders, metabolic syndrome, and in aging, makes antioxidant capacity to a key-feature of modern, multipotent remedies. Rational screenings of the Plant Kingdom for the discovery of new medications are based on: a) the inventory of available< species, b) knowledge accumulated from traditional phytotherapy, c) already available results of recent investigations on bioactivity, d) chemotaxonomic considerations, and e) toxicologic facts. The objective of the present work is to set the starting point for a database of plants with antioxidant properties. It is projected to serve as a basic step for further investigations aimed at discovering biomolecules with multiple effects in free-radical mediated diseases and in gerontology. The research focuses on vascular plants with a history of utilization in phytotherapy, and growing wild in the Western part of Romania (Banat region). Based on the above inclusion criteria a) – e), it was possible to point out over 140 plant species for which antioxidant activities were documented by different research groups. This impressive body of evidence provides valuable preliminary data for subsequent, more detailed research on the pharmacology, phytochemistry and clinical application of plants growing in Romania. The systematization of data performed in the present work is intended to help discover new, more efficient means to maintain and promote human health.
Keywords: medicinal plants, Romania, antioxidant
HOW MUCH SELENIUM DO MEDICINAL PLANTS CONTAIN? RESULTS
OF A RESEARCH ON WILD-GROWING SPECIES FROM WESTERN ROMANIA
Diana Simona ANTAL, Carmen Maximiliana CANCIU, Cristina Adriana DEHELEAN, Manfred ANKE
Abstract. The ultratrace element selenium is essential for higher animals and man. It is an active constituent of over twenty different selenoproteins from human tissues. As well, this rare nonmetal element is a potent anticarcinogen, inhibiting both chemically and virally induced tumors. The ever-increasing biological importance of Se determined us to perform the first largescale investigation of Romanian medicinal plants in what their Se content is concerned, and to evaluate the extraction ratio of this element during decoction. ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry) analysis revealed average Se contents of 43 μg/kg dry matter. The highest Se content was found in aerial parts (average of 60 μg/kg), followed by leaves (58), roots (54), flowers (35) and fruits (12). Species grown on limestone weathering soils are significantly richer in Se than the ones grown on granite or phyllite. Outstanding Se contents were measured for samples of Betula pendula leaves – 381, 131 and 113 μg Se/kg, Agrimonia eupatoria herb - 332 μg/kg, and Galium verum herb – 287 μg/kg. The extraction ratio of Se through decoction ranges from 4% (valerian roots) to 83% (chicory roots). The Se content and the high amounts of flavonoids in birch, agrimony and yellow bedstraw underline the value of these plants in the auxiliary treatment of various free-radical mediated diseases.
Keywords: selenium, medicinal plants, ICP-MS, aqueous extraction
EVALUATING LAND USE CHANGES BY LANDSCAPE HISTORICAL EXAMINATIONS
AT THE GREAT PASTURE OF HAJDÚBAGOS (EASTERN HUNGARY)
Zsuzsanna ANTAL, Lajos JUHÁSZ, Balázs ANTAL
Abstract. At an Eastern Hungarian protected grassland, namely at the Lesser Mole Rat (Spalax leucodon Nordmann, 1840). Reservation of Hajdúbagos Nature Conservation Area, grazing animal husbandry formed the façade of the land for hundreds of years. Though, due to the unfavourable changes of the last few decades in this sector of agriculture, the primeval sand steppe meadow (Pulsatillo hungaricae-Festucetum rupicolae (Soó 1938) Borhidi 1996) plant association is endangered by the increasingly accelerating succession. To stop or at least to slow down this process the rehabilitation of the area could be necessary. The target of the restoration ecology actions is to restore the previously existing, more favourable natural status of a particular area. However, the lack of knowledge according to the conditions that refer to the original circumstances often complicates this activity. To define these reference conditions the exploration of the history of a certain landscape is very important as restoration is only successful if the restored ecosystem is similar to the original. We examined the land use changes of the research area during the last 250 years according to historical and present geographical databases using GIS technology and completed this work with the study of archival data. By our results we stated that these examinations are crucial in the proper - agriculture related - management of protected areas.
Keywords: nature conservation, landscape historical examinations, GIS technology, protected grassland.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE CROP ROTATION, THE NUTRITION REGIME AND THE
HERBICIDES ON PRODUCTION AND SEVERAL PRODUCTIVITY ELEMENTS IN
WINTER WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) CULTIVATED ON ACID SOILS IN THE
WESTERN PLAIN OF ROMANIA
Ileana ARDELEAN, Gheorghe-Emil BANDICI, Cristian-Felix BLIDAR
Abstract. The crop rotation plant is a decisive factor influencing the growth and development of wheat .The choice of an appropriate crop rotation of plants, for instance, maintains a normal C/N ratio of 40-70 (assimilative C versus assimilative N). Bacterial N fixation in the soil and a normal C/N ratio are conditions that offer the forerunner plant ameliorative properties . The influence of plant cultivation technologies is expressed in the yield obtained per ha. The economic efficiency is quantified by the cost per ha or product unit.
At present, this quantification is irrelevant due to the fact that products’ prices oscillate dramatically as a consequence of the inflation which is a characterisic of the present period. Thus, the most recommended method is to express the efficiency of the applied agrotechnical measures throught a different indicator, more stable and synthetic: KWh. This indicator is more realistic in respect to the investments and benefits of a cultivated crop and also makes possible the application of adequate measures leading to production increase per surface unit .
Keywords: crop rotation, fertilisation level, herbicides, productivity elements, winter wheat, brown luvic soils (acid soils), spike, grains.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE FORERUNNER PLANT AND THE IRRIGATION ON SOME
QUALITY INDICATORS OF THE WHEAT PLANT (Triticum aestivum L.) IN THEIR
GROWTH CONDITIONS ON THE ACID SOILS IN THE NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA
Ileana ARDELEAN, Gheorghe-Emil BANDICI, Cristian-Felix BLIDAR
Abstract: The paper sustains the importance of the forerunner plant concerning the quality of the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and is based on the research carried out during 2006-2008 on a long term trial placed on the brown luvic (acid soils) from Oradea in 1990. In non-irrigating and irrigating conditions as well the smallest protein, wet gluten and dry gluten values were obtained in wheat mono-crop; the values increased in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize and the biggest values were registered in the forerunner plant, wheat-maize-soybean.
Keywords: forerunner plant, quality, irrigated, non-irrigated, water regime, mono-crop, protein, wet gluten, dry gluten.
THE SEASONAL QUANTITATIVE DISTRIBUTION OF COLIFORM GERMS IN THE
ARIEŞ RIVER (ROMANIA) WATER AFFECTED BY POLLUTION
Abstract. Faecal pollution of river water can lead to health problems because of the presence of infectious microorganisms. These may be derived from human sewage or animal sources. Water safety or quality is best described by a combination of sanitary inspection and microbial water quality assessment. This approach provides data on possible sources of pollution in Arieş river water, as well as numerical information on the actual level of faecal pollution according with the analzyed bacteriological parameters.
Keywords: river, water, faecal pollution, hygienic bacteria
THE NUMERICAL STRUCTURE OF LUMBRICIDAE POPULATIONS IN SOME
TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS OF CÂNDEŞTI PIEDMONT
(SOUTH ROMANIA, ARGEŞ COUNTY)
Abstract. The present work establishes the species composition, numerical density and relative abundance of lumbricide populations in the soils of some of the forest ecosystems. The three ecosystems are: the mixture of beech and oak, spruce and grassland. These ecosystems are located into the high and middle hills of the Southern Carpathians, namely in the Candeşti Piedmont. Among the three types of studied ecosystems, differences have been reported, considering the parameters described above. Specific relief unit is the slope, plateau also being present. The dominant exposure of the slopes is partly sunny, with a bending curve that does not exceed 25-30 degrees and an altitude ranging between 340-700 m. Representative geological formations consist of alternating clay, coarse sand, gravel and boulders. The relative abundance revealed Aporrectodea rosea rosea and Octolasion lacteum species with the highest percentages in all stations. Aporrectodea rosea rosea species had the highest percentage of relative abundance in the spruce ecosystem in March. However, Octolasion lacteum species was best represented in the specific outline, in all months. Relative and numerical abundance and density of lumbricidae are influenced by several factors of biotope, among which pH and humidity are the most important.
Keywords: lumbricidae, numerical density, relative abundance, forest ecosystem.
Petru BURESCU, Laura Mariana LACATOŞ
Abstract. In this paperwork we presented a phytocoenologic, environmental, bioeconomic and ecoprotective study on hornbeam and beech forests mixture spread over Lazareni Hills. These forests are subordinated to association Carpino-Fagetum, Pauca (1941) whose phytocoenoses are analyzed by us under terms of floristic composition, ecological spectra of life form types, floristic elements (phytogeographic), under terms of ecological factors chart: humidity, temperature and chemical reaction of soil.
The association is presented in a stable equilibrium and consequently none of the dominant species of the tree layer or of the herbaceous layer tend to replace each other inherently in their competition for food and light. It is necessary to maintain these forests in a natural state, because through the particular nature of the stations they occupy, they join in the group of forests with priority functions of anti-erosion protection, of hydrological balance adjustment and biodiversity conservation.
From the economic point of view, the association is of particular interest through the high quality of timber provided by the dominant species.
Keywords: phytocoenoses, association, phytocoenologic study, life forms, floristic elements, ecological indexes.
INPUTS TO KNOWLEDGE OF ROCKS VEGETATION WITHIN
CODRU MOMA MOUNTAINS (NW ROMANIA)
Petru BURESCU, Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ
Abstract. This work represents a phytocoenologic, ecological, bioeconomic and ecoprotectiv study on the vegetation of rocky formations from the class Asplenietea trichomanis (Br.-Bl. in Meier et Br.-Bl. 1934) Oberdorfer 1957. After conducting a 70 phytocoenologic relevées on limestones and silicate rocks from the Codru-Moma Mountains there have been identified a number of five vegetal associations from which only two are examined in this work: Asplenietum trichomanorutae- murariae R. Tx. 1937 and Asplenietum septentrionali-adianti-nigri E. Oberdorfer 1938. The saxicol-sciadophilous phytocoenoses (shady) and sciadophilous-helsciadophilous phytocoenoses (shady-semishady) belonging to groups that we are reffering to were studied in terms of the ecological factors (moisture, temperature and chemical reaction of the soil) and of the distribution of species in the spectrum of life forms and in the spectrum of floristic elements.
Keywords: phytocoenoses, vegetal association, rocky, ecological factors, life forms, floristic elements.
APPLE SHOOT MULTIPLICATION AND PLANTLETS REACTION
TO IN VITRO CULTURE
Anca BUTIUC-KEUL, Adela HALMAGYI, Valentina ISAC, Cornelia CRĂCIUNAŞ, Rahela CARPA
Abstract. The present work aimed to evaluate the expression of several enzymatic systems in apple (Malus domestica Borkh., cvs. Florina, Romus3, Romus4, Colmar, Rebra, Goldrush, Idared) plants grown in vitro in comparison with the in vivo donor plants. In vitro culture was established on Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium supplemented with Lee and Fossard (1977) (LF)
vitamins, 2 mg l-1 N6-benzyladenine, 0.01 mg l-1 α-naphtyl-acetic acid, 30 g l-1 dextrose and 7 g l-1 agar. The highest shoot proliferation was obtained for all cultivars on medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l N6-benzyladenine. Our study shows that in vivo plants have a distinct pattern of izoesterases in comparison with in vitro plantlets. Several izoesterases characteristic for in vitro or in vivo plants were identified. Izoperoxidases are inducible with culture conditions, physiological condition and developmental stage. The pattern of superoxid-dismutases is less variable with the culture conditions which demonstrate that in vitro culture does not occur oxidative stress. According to the pattern of peroxidases, estarases and superoxid-dismutases, there are not significant differences between in vivo and in vitro plants. Valuable apple cultivars could be preserved short or medium term by in vitro culture without genetically changes.
Keywords: Malus domestica, micropropagation, peroxidase, esterase, superoxid-dimutase.
INFLUENCE OF pH ON GROWTH AND NITROGEN FIXATION IN BACTERIAL
STRAINS ISOLATED FROM ALTITUDINAL VEGETATION ZONES
OF PARÂNG MOUNTAINS (ROMANIA)
Rahela CARPA, Cristina DOBROTĂ, Anca KEUL-BUTIUC, Maria Cornelia MAIOR, Vasile MUNTEAN, Mihai DRĂGAN-BULARDA
Abstract. The aim of present paper was to study the influence of different pH values on activity of nitrogen fixing strains isolated from five altitudinal vegetation zones of Parâng Massif (Central Romania). The effect of varying the pH on growth and development of Azotobacter strains as well as on the products of molecular nitrogen fixation was surveyed. The strains were cultivated on media with mannitol or sucrose at 35ºC and continuous shaking at 150 rpm. The pH value for optimal growth of the Azotobacter strains isolated from mountain soils is around neutral pH and cell growth diminished at a slightly alkaline (pH=8) and an acid pH (pH=4). The molecular nitrogen fixation capacity by strains coming from mountain soils at the chosen pH values was determined indirectly, by extracellular proteins formation and ammonia secretion in culture media. The maximum value of extracellular proteins was obtained at the strains coming from the flood plain at pH 8 (21.452 mg/l). The extracellular proteins concentration on the studied media followed parallel and close lines which had a growing trend untill the end of the studied interval.
The ammonia secretion at each mountain zone was different on the two culture media taken into consideration. The level of the ammonia secretion attained a maximum of 6.02 mg/l at the strains from the beech zone at pH 8, on sucrose medium.
Keywords: Azotobacter, pH, nitrogen fixation, altitudinal vegetation zones
AIR POLLUTION AND GENETIC INFLUENCES ON BONE MINERAL DENSITY
Mariana CEVEI, Dorina STOICĂNESCU
Abstract: Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterized by reduced bone mineral density, disrupted bone microarchitecture and alterations in the amount and variety of proteins in bones. Bone turnover is a very complex process, depending on genetic and non genetic factors, such as diet, lifestyle or air pollution. The aim of the study was to explore genetic and environmental risk factors that contribute to osteoporosis by quantifying several factors related to bone mineral density. We assessed family history, vitamin D status, bone mineral density in subjects seeking advice on osteoporosis. Air pollution data were also obtained. Average concentrations of NO2 and particulate matter PM10 were calculated. Due to their synergistic effect on the organism the maximum permissible concentration calculated for all air pollutants was exceeded. In our study total body bone mineral density was inversely associated with indicators of air pollution. The prevalence of vitamin D depletion was 64.76%. Genetic contribution to the etiology of osteoporosis was revealed by the positive family history for 36% affected subjects. Air pollution and vitamin D deficiency have a negative impact on bone mineral homeostasis.
Keywords: osteoporosis, air pollution, vitamin D deficiency
ECOLOGICAL RESEARCHES ABOUT THE AVIFAUNA OF THE
BUDEASA BASIN (ARGEŞ RIVER, ROMANIA)
IN THE HIEMAL AND PREVERNAL ASPECTS (2008-2009)
Denisa CONETE, Adrian MESTECĂNEANU, Radu GAVA
Abstract. The authors present a list of 77 species of birds identified in the hiemal and prevernal aspects (2008-2009) in the area of the Budeasa Lake, situated in the middle hydrographical basin of the Argeş River. Their main habitat, phenology, biogeographic origin, presence in the hiemal and prevernal seasons, constancy and their status of conservation are analysed in the paper. There are two overdominant species among those studied in the hiemal aspect: Anas platyrhynchos and Aythya ferina (both of them found favourable condition for food and shelter here), Anas crecca and Aythya fuligula are in the zone of dominance and the others species are in the zone of complementary species. Anas platyrhynchos remains the overdominant species every month. Many exemplars come here from the North because of the favourable weather conditions, such as freezing and low temperatures.
Keywords: bird species, ecological researches, Budeasa Basin, Argeş River, Romania
THE DISTRIBUTION OF CADDISFLY FAUNA (INSECTA: TRICHOPTERA)
IN ANINEI MOUNTAINS (SOUTHWESTERN ROMANIA)
Mălina DUMBRAVĂ-DODOACĂ, Manuela Floriana OGRIN, Jörn Andre PÜTZSCHLER,
Abstract. The wide distribution and large tolerance to physical-chemical factors makes it possible to use caddisflies as bioindicators. This article aims to present a list regarding the caddisfly species (in the larval stage) in Aninei Mountains (Romania). The samples were localized along 3 hydrographic basins (Bârzava, Caras and Nera) and 20 species have been identified. The most frequent ones were Potamophylax latipennis and Sericostoma personatum. The presence of each one of them has been correlated with the altitude, so the results of this paper are integrated in the ones described in literature.
Keywords: caddisfly, altitude, Aninei Mountains, Mountains of Banat, Caras-Severin county
CAPITALIZATION OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE TYPES
DURING THE BIOLOGY DISCIPLINES
Mariana DUMITRU, Stela-Gabriela JELEA
Abstract. The study was conducted on a sample of children at the Lăpuş School with classes I-VIII, using the teaching/learning process of the biology disciplines. A key element in applying the theory of Multiple Intelligence in a classroom is knowing the intelligence profile of children. Differentiated teaching approach was designed based on the predominant types of intelligences. For this purpose we used various methods: questionnaire, observation of children as they are given various tasks, interview, development of projects, role play, the biographical method-personal history of child, analysis of activities' results (compositions, that we capitalize in training, designing different teaching approach depending on predominant types of intelligences. The results appeared without delay. After a school's year that we worked differently with the children, they have improved school performance and became more interested in the study of biological disciplines thus arousing their curiosity and respect towards life.
Keywords: children, multiple intelligences, learning style, teaching biology
PRELIMINARY RESEARCHES REGARDING THE MICROWAVES INFLUENCE
ON THE MILK MICROFLORA
Anca DUMUŢA-CODRE, Ovidiu ROTARU, Liviu GIURGIULESCU, Florin BOLTEA
Liliana CRIŞAN, Bianca NEGHELEA
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the microwaves action against the microflora existing normally in the raw milk. A number of 6 milk samples were exposed to the microwaves treatment for different periods of time (15 s, 30 s, 45 s, 60 s and 120 s) and analyzed using the Horizontal method for the enumeration of microorganisms – Colony count technique at 30°C in order to determine their T.N.G (total number of germs). The results showed a significant reduction of the colonies number as the microwave time exposure increased.
Keywords: microflora, T.N.G., microwaves, milk
BACTERIOLOGICAL STUDIES IN SEDIMENT FROM
CERNA-BELARECA-DANUBE HYDROGRAPHIC SYSTEM (SW ROMANIA)
WITH A ROLE IN ASSESSING POLLUTION
Marioara Nicoleta FILIMON, Aurica Breica BOROZAN, Vasile Daniel GHERMAN
Abstract. This paper contains data about the microorganism population in sediment from Cerna-Belareca-Danube hydrographic system. Data allows us to identify possible pollution sources and determine their effect on certain eco physiological group of microorganisms. Bacteriological studies had in view to establish three eco physiological groups of microorganism: nitrifying bacteria, iron-reducing bacteria and anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. Determination has been made using serial dilutions and specific culture environment for each eco physiological group. Based on absolute values of those 3 microorganism groups, the bacterial indicator of sediment quality has been established (BISQ). Sediment analyses have values between 1.274 (Orşova upstream) and 1.296 (Mehadia downstream) in spring. These are the values for winter: 1.286 (Topleţ downstream) and 1.310 (Orşova upstream). Additional contribution of organic sulfur compounds and microorganisms involved in the sulfur cycle have relatively close values for both seasons in Herculane sample point. Sampling points Mehadia downstream and Topleţ downstream represent the endpoint of BISQ. Lowest values had been recorded here in autumn and the highest values had been recorded in spring. BISQ lower values from Orşova harbor and Orşova shipyard is due to oil pollution, varnishes, paints, detergents and metals. BISQ has seasonal variations, depending on the sampling point of the studied aquatic ecosystem.
Keywords: bacterial indicator of sediment quality, sediment, pollution
THE ANALYSIS OF ALCOHOLIC EXTRACTS OF Hypericum SPECIES
BY UV/VIS SPECTROPHOTOMETRY
Daniela GÎTEA, Monica ŞIPOŞ, TĂMAŞ MIRCEA, Bianca PAŞCA
Abstract: In this report, the UV/VIS spectrophotometric method was employed in order to identify and dose the active principles contained in the alcoholic extracts of Hypericum perforatum L., Hypericum maculatum Crantz, with two subspecies, Hypericum tetrapterum Fries and Hypericum hirsutum L. The most important active principles are hypericin and flavones. For the identification of flavones an officinal method in FR X was used, whereas for the hypericin - an officinal method in the European Pharmacopoeia. The obtained results led to the conclusion that H. maculatum has the highest content of total hypericins (0.496g%) as well as flavonoids (6.418g%). In the European Pharmacopoeia the St. John’s wort monograph specifies the exact content of hypericin of the vegetable product (determined through the spectophotometric method), of 0.08g% total hypericin. Given this fact, all the studied Hypericum species fit within the limits imposed by the E. Ph. There is no stipulation in FR X regarding the limits of hypericin concentrations or of other active principles that can be found in Hyperici herba extracts.
Keywords: Hypericum, UV/VIS spectrophotometry, flavones, hypericins
RESEARCHES CONCERNING IN VITRO CULTURES OPTIMIZATION OF THE
VULNERABLE SPECIES Dianthus nardiformis Janka
Irina HOLOBIUC, Rodica CATANA, Victoria CRISTEA
Abstract. Our aim was to establish an optimized protocol for in vitro short-term conservation of the vulnerable species Dianthus nardiformis Janka belonging to Romanian Flora. For our purpose, different culture media compositions were tested: complex variants added with plant growth regulators and simplified media with low levels of macro- and microelements.
This species had a good in vitro reaction, the regeneration occurs through direct morphogenesis as in all Dianthus species. Generally, the use of variants of MS medium supplemented with cytokinin/ auxin at 10/1 ratio proved to induce high regeneration response starting from the first month of culture.
In our study, MS media complex variants with diminished levels of plant growth hormones at the same ratio of cytokinins /auxins conducted to acceptable levels of regeneration. By the other hand on complex regeneration variants, the rooting process was absent or underwent at low levels. Using simplified media with reduced levels of macro- and microelements, both rhizogenesis and shoots formation were induced. The in vitro response was characterized through the mean number of regenerated shoots/explants and the mean number of neoformed roots/initial inoculum. Despite of low micro- and macroelements levels (1/2 and ¼ of MS salts), the modified MS basal medium composition proved to be beneficial for D. nardiformis, plants could be efficiently regenerated and rooted and regenerative aggregates can also be propagated as short-term cultures. The need of the supplementary transfer on particular rooting medium is also eliminated.
Using simplified culture media, this species can be efficiently micropropagated and maintained as active tissue cultures, able to supply viable plants whenever it is necessary.
Keywords: Dianthus nardiformis, in vitro optimization, complex and simplified culture media
PHYTOCOENOLOGICAL RESEARCH CONCERNING THE GRASSLANDS OF
LĂZĂRENI HILLS (NORTH-WESTERN ROMANIA)
Laura Mariana LACATOŞ, Petru BURESCU
Abstract. Association Anthoxantho-Agrostietum capillaris Sillinger (1933) , is now reported for the first time in Lăzăreni Hills. This study aims to analyze the phytocoenoses of the Association Anthoxantho-Agrostietum capillaris(Class Molinio- Arrhenatheretea Tüxen 1937) from phytocoenologic, floristic and economic points of view. Phytocoenoses association analysis present a scientific importance, with a total of 107 species, which is a very rich biodiversity, some species are rare, vulnerable, endemic and need to be protected. Meadows with Anthoxanthum odoratum and Agrostis capillaris is an important forage for both livestock grazing and harvesting land-mass hay. Meadows give this association a great phytomass production, but with low economic value. Because of human low biodiversity, flora and vegetation of these meadows have a natural character. Grassland maintain stable equilibrium and the ungrassed bush tend to phytocoenoses progress (Pruno spinosae – Crataegetum (Soó 1927) Hueck 1931).
Keywords: association, phytocoenoses, phytocoenologic study, floristic study, life form, ecological indexes
TAXONOMIC SPECTRUM OF MACROINVERTEBRATE COMMUNITIES
IN SĂSAR RIVER (NW ROMANIA)
Oana-Elena MARE ROŞCA, Lucia MIHALESCU, Monica MARIAN, Cristian-Felix BLIDAR
Abstract. The following article analyses the taxonomic composition of benthic macroinvertebrates in Săsar river, which flows in the North West of Romania in a highly industrialized area. According to prior studies, increased biological unbalances have been observed due to mining activities, meaning that Săsar river, out of its 31 kilometers from the spring to the flow, has 17 kilometers which are completely downgraded. According to the systematic research done between 2003-2006, 41 taxa were identified. After working with the physical-chemical monitoring data, it was noticed that the low diversity of zoobenthic communities was due to the toxic pollutants from the mining and metallurgic industries.
Keywords: macrozoobenthic communities, mining activities, Săsar river, Romania
PARTICIPATION OF THE INDIGENOUS VS. ALIEN HERBACEOUS SPECIES TO THE
CONSTITUTION OF VEGETAL LAYER ON THE BOZANTA MARE TAILING PONDS
Monica MARIAN, Camelia NICULA, Leonard MIHALY-COZMUTA,
Anca PETER, Anca MIHALY-COZMUTA
Abstract: This study explored the distribution of different species of native and alien herbaceous species on the tailing pond Bozânta Mare (Maramures county in NW Romania) and the differences in heavy metal uptake in the roots and shoots relative to: 1. herbaceous species; 2. differential metal uptake and variation within single-species; 3. metal content of soil substrate. In 2007-2009 the contribution of native and alien species to the herbaceous layer forming, were studied on the Bozânta Mare tailing pond, resulted after heavy metal extraction process. The heavy metals found at elevated level in the herbaceous species included for environmental interest are: Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cd, Fe, Cr, Mn, Na, K. Also, the aim of this research is to evaluate the impact of the native vs. alien species presence in the colonization process on the tailing pond.
Keywords: native, alien, herbaceous species, bio-accumulation, heavy metal, tailing pond
ANALYSES OF NUMERICAL ABERRATIONS OF CHROMOSOME 17 AND TP53 GENE
DELETION/AMPLIFICATION IN HUMAN ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA
USING DUAL-COLOR FLUORESCENCE IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION
Noemi MESZAROS, Dragoş BELENGEANU, Dorina STOICĂNESCU, Nicoleta ANDREESCU,
Simona FARCAŞ, Monica STOIAN, Mariana CEVEI
Abstract: In Romania, oral and facial cancers represent approximately 5% of all cancers. Deactivation and unregulated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The genomic change results in numerical and structural chromosomal alterations, particularly in chromosomes 3, 9, 11 and 17. The aim of our study was to identify numerical aberrations of chromosome 17, deletion or amplification of p53 gene and to reveal correlations between abnormalities of chromosome 17and of p53 gene with TNM status and grading in 15 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma. 80 % of cases presented chromosome 17 polysomy and only 20% of cases had chromosome 17 monosomy. 46.6 % of samples revealed p53 gene amplification and 33.3 % of them p53 deletion. Polysomy of chromosome 17 was also detected in tumor-adjacent epithelia. The degree of the cytogenetic abnormality did not correlate with the stage of the disease, the histological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Molecular cytogenetic techniques, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, facilitate the confirmation of presumed chromosomal aberrations with high sensitivity and specificity.
Keywords: Oral squamous cell carcinoma, FISH, Chromosome 17, p53 gene
RESEARCH ON THE GROWTH INTENSITY OF THE Zea mays L. PLANTLETS
AERIAL PARTS UNDER CADMIUM TREATMENT
Lucia MIHALESCU, Oana-Elena MARE-ROŞCA, Monica MARIAN, Cristian-Felix BLIDAR
Abstract: In order to test the effect of cadmium on the growth of the plantlets aerial parts, this element was administered as water solutions of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) of different concentrations. The measuring of the length of the Zea mays plantlets aerial parts evidenced the existence of some differences regarding the value of this parameter. Analyzing the obtained data, we observe that the inhibiting action of cadmium upon the growth of the Zea mays plantlets aerial parts was directly proportional with the increase of the concentration of the applied heavy metal. The lesser values were evidenced at the variants which were treated with the higher concentrations of cadmium chloride (100 mg/l and 200 mg/l). The plants from the variant with 1 mg/l CdCll2 resisted at cadmium toxicity, the inhibition being insignificant. Morphologically, it was observed that as the administered cadmium concentration was increased, the most evidently the symptoms of chlorosis and dryness of the vegetative tops of the Zea mays plantlets appeared.
Keywords: caryopsis, cadmium chloride, aerial part, variant, plantlet
ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS OF Phaseolus vulgaris AND Zea mays SEEDS
GROWN IN AGROCENOSES PRONE TO POLLUTION
WITH HEAVY METALS
Camelia NICULA, Monica MARIAN, Leonard MIHALY-COZMUTA,
Anca PETER, Anca MIHALY-COZMUTA
Abstract. The key goal of our research is the identification and analysis of accumulations of metal ions (Pb2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe2+) during their imbibition in seeds of Phaseolus vulgaris and Zea mays. We take as samples seeds collected from one metalliferrous and respectively from one non-metalliferrous area in Maramures County (North-West of Romania). We will refer following to an area as being “metalliferrous” because of its known high degree of pollution with metallic components, and to the other area as “non-metalliferous” because of being generally known as very much less exposed to pollution in general. We will subsequently name as being “polluted” the seeds originated in the metalliferous area, and respectively as “unpolluted” the seeds originated in the other area. We have thoroughly investigated in quantitative terms the existence of accumulations of each of the metal ions mentioned above during imbibition at three different levels of concentration. The seeds grown in the non-metalliferous area generally display a higher degree of absorption for each of the metal ions than the seeds grown in the metalliferous area. On the other hand, we have concluded that the concentration of heavy metals does not impact significantly the absorption capacity of both the polluted and unpolluted Z. mays seeds. The P. vulgaris seeds behaved differently, namely the content of metal ions absorbed went proportionally up, as the concentration of the initial solution went higher.
Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris, Zea mays, heavy metal accumulation, imbibition, adaptative mechanisms
CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE PHYTOCOENOLOGIC STUDY IN PURE EUROPEAN
BEECH STAND FORESTS IN CODRU-MOMA MOUNTAINS
(NORTH-WESTERN OF ROMANIA)
Călin-Gheorghe PĂŞCUŢ, Petru BURESCU**
Abstract. In the present work we present a phytocoenologic study on the associations found in pure European beech stand forests in Codru-Moma Mountains namely: Festuco drymejae-Fagetum Morariu et al. 1968, Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955.
Characterization of the associations we studied and presentation of the tables have been made considering the selection of the most representative relevées of pure European beech forests belonging to Codru-Moma Mountains.
The phytocoenoses of pure forest stands of European beech forests belonging to the two associations were analyzed in terms of floristic composition, life forms spectrum, spectrum chart of the floral elements and ecological indices.
Keywords: association, phytocoenoses, pure European beech, floristic elements, life forms, ecological indices
LIVER HISTOPATHOLOGIC ALTERATIONS IN THE FROG
Rana (Pelophylax) ridibunda
INDUCE BY THE ACTION OF RELDAN 40EC INSECTICIDE
Alina PĂUNESCU, Cristina Maria PONEPAL, Octavian DRĂGHICI, Alexandru Gabriel MARINESCU
Abstract. Histological and histochemical alterations in the liver of the frog Rana ridibunda induced by the action of the insecticide Reldan 40EC (chlorpyrifos-methil) were investigated. The animals used in the experiment were treated with 0.01 ml/g body weight Reldan 40EC and kept at 4-6ºC, respectively at 22-24ºC. The toxic was administrated by intraperitoneal shots (one shot every two days, in a scheme of three weeks). At the end of the experiment we observe an increase in the area occupied by the Kuppfer cells as well as an increase in their color intensity. Mild karyomegalia and polyploidy together with accumulation of infiltrates was evident. We also observe a fibrosis around the blood vessels and between hepatocytes.
Keywords: Rana ridibunda, histopathologic alteration, liver, chlorpyrifos-methil
EFFECT OF DEUTERIUM DEPLETED WATER AND Pi WATER
ABOUT IN VITRO GERMINATION OF MATURE CARYOPSES OF SOME SPECIES
Adriana PETRUS-VANCEA, Cristian-Felix BLIDAR, Iuliu LADÁNYI
Abstract. In the present experiments we studied the capacity of three types of cereals – wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Ariesan), rye (Secale cereale cv. Orizont) and their hybrid, triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trilstar) - to be cultivated by specific methods based on vegetal biotechnologies, achieving “in vitro” cultures initiation, from mature caryopses, on culture mediums prepared with different types of water, respectively deuterium depleted water (with 25 ppm D) or Pi water, as the substitute of distilled water from the recipe elaborated by Murashige – Skoog (1962), by this observing the effects of these modifications in the composition of vitroculture medium, concerning the caryopsis germination. At the end of the experiment we found that, although in the first hours of germination, the deuterium depleted water, with 25 ppm (part per molecule) D – present in the culture medium – inhibits rootlets growing, at 5 days from the germination of three types of caryopses, on aseptic medium, substitution of distilled water, from the vitroculture medium, especially with deuterium depleted water, with 25 ppm D and in a smaller measure with Pi water, led to the significant stimulation, both of the germination process and plants growing resulted from germinated embryo, especially of its rootlets.
Keywords: cereals, micropropagation, deuterium depleted water, Pi water
RESEARCH ON THE CHANGES OF SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
IN SEVERAL FISH SPECIES UNDER THE ACTION
OF THE TALSTAR INSECTICIDE
Maria Cristina PONEPAL, Alina PĂUNESCU, Octavian DRĂGHICI, Alexandru Gabriel MARINESCU
Abstract. Talstar insecticide is labeled for numerous bugs and many other household pests and lawn pests. Bifenthrin is highly toxic to fish and aquatic arthropods. Bifenhrin LC50 values range from 0.0038 to17.8 μg/L and is only slightly toxic to both waterfowl and upland game birds (LD50 values range from 1.800 mg/kg to > 2.150 mg/kg). Bifenthrin had no effect on mollusks at its limit of water solubility. This study was carried out to analyze the effects of sublethal and lethal concentrations – from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml Talstar/l water on some physiological parameters (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, number of erythrocytes) on fish belonging to three species: prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch), bleak (Alburnus alburnus L.) and perch (Perca fluviatilis L.). The acute and subacute toxicity of Talstar insecticide was evaluated in glass aquaria under semystatic conditions. The Tlastar product, under the concentrations from 0.000625 to 0.005 ml/l water, produces, after one week of immersion, a significant decrease of the fish oxygen consumption. The insecticide has changed the fish respiratory rhythm in all investigated concentrations after seven days of exposure. The number of erythrocytes has significantly decrease after seven days of immersion at insecticide concentrations of 0.000625 ml Talstar/l water (bleak and perch) and 0.00125 (prussian carp) ml Talstar/l water. From the three investigated fish species, the perch proved to be the most sensitive to the action of the toxic substance, followed by the bleak and the prussian carp.
Keywords: prussian carp, bleak, perch, bifenthrin, oxygen consumption, respiratory rhythm, number of erythrocytes
DETERMINING THE OPTIMAL SOWING PERIOD AT A VARIETY FROM
Dahlia variabilis SPECIES FROM Mignon GROUP
Mihai Radu POP
Abstract. Planted in addition to walls, to the south of the massif, in groups, beats or lawns, Dahlia beautifully decorates parks and gardens, The rebates are used especially varieties with small waist . Today, when the development of green spaces is a real concern of people, we consider important to provide technology for the production of plants that can offer the widest possible variety of species with the widest possible decor period. Thus, the present article presents researches about determining the period of sowing for dwarf dahlias produced in pots, with spring and early summer flowering and used for decoration in green areas. In this experiment were taken in the account characters such seed germination period, plant height, time to flowering, flowering period, flower area, mass of seeds from a plant.
Keywords: Dahlia variabilis Mignon Yellow Shades, autumn sowing, early flowering
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN PRODUCTIVITY ELEMENTS IN Lolium perenne L.
SPECIES FOR NEW VARIETIES RESISTANT TO DROUGHT
Mihai Radu POP, Camelia SAND, Horea BARBU, Mironela BALAN, Angelica GRUSEA, Horea BOERIU, Adrian POPA
Abstract. Perennial ryegrass is considered the most important perennial gramineous plant due to the many possibilities of use (grass and fodder) [6, 9, 15].
With the increasing emphasis put on increasing the area of green space, obtaining new biological forms - varieties of the main species of gramineous plants for turf, with increased resistance to drought and land during the summer, may represent an important objective of the research companies producing such seed [6, 7].
In the present study, are given researches on correlations between productivity elements, obtained in an experiment that simulates conditions of severe drought soil, to different genotypes of the species Lolium perenne L., which is an ideal partner for simple and complex mixtures of turf.
Establishment of correlations between key elements of productivity show to the breeder, in the selection work, choice of valuable genotypes consistent with the objectives of its program.
Keywords: grass seed, drought resistance, improvement, correlations, diploid and tetraploid genotypes.
PRELIMINARY DATA ON EDAPHIC ALGAE IN THE CITY OF PITEŞTI (ROMANIA)
Liliana Cristina SOARE, Codruţa Mihaela DOBRESCU
Abstract. In order to initiate the inventory of the edaphic algae in the city of Piteşti, soil samples were taken from Expo Park Lumina Park, the Ştrand Park, the bank of the river Argeş, Trivale forest, Trivale Park, the BCR Park, Bascov Park, Park in Prundu, Bucharest-Piteşti highway. A total of 27 genus/species were identified, out of which 22% belonging to phylum Cyanobacteria, 67% to phylum Ochrophyta, and 11% to phylum Chlorophyta. The prevalence of the ecobiomorph B was found, in proportion of 68%, which was followed by ecobiomorphs Cf, Ch, N and P, each represented by 7%, and C, represented by 4%. In all samples analyzed the presence was identified of the species Hantzschia amphioxys, alongside Diatoma vulgare, in polluted soils. The presence was also noted of species Cylindrospermum sp., Nostoc sp., Nostoc commune, and nitrogen capturing Nostoc punctiforme. The rate of aridity, that is the ratio of the number of Cyanobacteria and Chlorophyta species, calculated for each sample, had high values of between 1 and 4, which confirms that urban soils are characterized by arid conditions.
Keywords: cyanobacteria, edaphic algae, Cyanobacteria, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, Hantzschia amphioxys, Diatoma vulgare, nitrogen capturing species, Piteşti (Romania)
THE INFLUENCE OF THE SEASON AND CULTURE MEDIUM
ON MICROPROPAGATION OF TWO INTERGENERIC
Fragaria X Potentilla VARIETIES
Anca Nicoleta ŞUŢAN, Aurel POPESCU, Valentina ISAC
Abstract. In order to develop a protocol for high efficiency in vitro propagation of two intergeneric Fragaria x Potentilla varieties, ‘Serenata’ and ‘Pink Panda’ respectively, the influence of season on the rate of multiplication was investigated in shoot cultures on Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Lee and Fossard (LF) media, supplemented with different combinations of growth regulators. In vitro performance of explants indicated a positive correlation between shoot proliferation and season in both genotypes of ornamental strawberry. The mean number of shoots formed per explant was higher when ‘Serenata’ and ‘Pink Panda’ varieties were subcultured on MS or LF media, in the active growing season, irrespective of the culture medium composition. In both ornamental strawberry varieties, the mean number of shoots formed per explant was slightly higher when subcultured on MS medium, in the spring and summer season, as compared to LF medium, which was proven to be the most effective in the cold season.
Keywords: in vitro culture, season, culture media, intergeneric hybrids, Fragaria x Potentilla.
THYMIDYLATE SYNTHASE (TS) TANDEM REPEAT PROMOTER POLYMORPHISM
AND SUSCEPTIBILITY TO COLORECTAL CANCER OF ROMANIAN SUBJECTS
Mihai TOMA, Monica STAVARACHI, Dănuţ CIMPONERIU, Pompilia APOSTOL, Traean BURCOŞ,
Emil POPA, Nicolae PANDURU, Irina RADU, Lucian GAVRILĂ
Abstract. The risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is influence by polymorphisms located in the genes encoding enzymes of the folate pathway. The aim of this study was to evaluate if 2R/3R TS (rs34743033) polymorphism is involved in predisposition for colorectal in Romanian subjects. In the present case-control study, 75 sporadic CRC subjects and 60 healthy controls were genotyped by PCR method. The frequency of 3R/3R genotype was 40% in control group and 42.7% in cancer group. We found that there was no statistically significant association between the risk for CRC and 2R/3R TS polymorphism in Romanian subjects.
Keywords: colorectal cancer, folate pathway, TS polymorphism, PCR-RFLP.
PRELIMINARY STUDY ON EPIPHYTIC LICHENS AS AN INDICATOR OF
ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY IN FORESTS FROM AROUND BUCHAREST
Abstract. The epiphytic lichens were investigated for three forests situated around Bucharest Municipality. The comparative historical background studies concerned with epiphytic lichens in relation to environmental conditions were related. Five variables close related with the distance was analysed within this study, as follow: (1) in close correlation with the distance, the taxonomic analysis reveals a major significance regarding the dominant roll of the genera with a low epiphytic lichens diversity, within the Andronache Forest, unlike Cernica and Pustnicul Forest where, the number of genera is do not significantly owing increasing species number; (2) regarding the substrate, epiphytic lichens species from all investigated forests prefer trees with a roughly rhytidoma. Trees sampled in a great deal belong to the Quercus genus with a roughly rhytidoma facilitating a good growing of epiphytic lichens species because keeps for a long periods of time a high degree of humidity; (3) the analysis of toxi-tolerance degree has shown how the sensitive epiphytic lichens species to pollution is increasing depending on the distance; (4) autsozological categories are marked in a great deal by a great distance from an urban Bucharest area. Thus, the number of rare and disappearing lichens species is increasing direct proportional depending on the distance from the Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests due to improvement of the environmental quality; (5) from geographical distribution of lichens species point of view, take a place an increasing number of epiphytic lichens species which is close correlated with the distance from Bucharest Municipality area to investigated forests. In addition, a great importance was conferred the presence of rare and disappearing epiphytic lichens species nearest perturbation area of Bucharest Municipality (Andronache Forest). This fact is possible to occur owing to the direction of prevailed winds. It was used of sensitivity values of epiphytic lichens species to quantify spatial gradients in environmental alteration.
Keywords: epiphytic lichen, Bucharest Municipality (Romania), environmental quality, Andronache, Pustnicul, Cernica