Andreea BRASOVAN, Vasilica MÂNDROC, Ramona CÂMPEAN, Ioan PETEAN,
Vlad CODREA, George ARGHIR
Abstract. The present study is focused on the close relation between Ca and Mg content in the brier fruits with the soil of the Campul lui Neag sterile coal dump, which is in early formation processes from industrial entiantrosoil to a fertile soil. The minerals found in soil sample are: quartz, calcite, biotite, and potassium feldspar. Some of the soil particles are chemical inert (quartz) but calcite provide Ca2+ ions and biotite provides Mg2+ ions. The brier roots assimilate those ions despite of lack of humus of entiantrosoil. This interaction between brier roots and entiantrosoil facilitate on the long term the formation of a fertile soil. Chemical analysis of brier fruits feature Ca and Mg content in the reference range (Ca = 0.297 g Ca/100 g solid sample ± 5 %, and Mg = 0.212 g Mg/100 g solid sample ± 5 %). The calculated Ca extraction coefficient is 20% and Mg extraction coefficient is 16 % for the brier fruits growth on the dump soil. The available Ca amount is directly proportional to the calcite content, which is significantly increased comparative with biotite. The less amount of biotite conducts to a less extraction coefficient for Mg. This proves that dump soil is able to assure an optimal amount of Ca and Mg for the brier fruits growing. The lack of heavy metals in the dump site is a favorable assumption for human use of brier fruits. The brier wild crop growth on the sterile dump soil is suitable for home application (brier marmalade, depurative tea, etc…). The sterile dump soil rehabilitation prove to be a slowly process counting only on the brier interaction with mineral components. The actual state feature a good progress of dump rehabilitation. The process could be fastened by improving some natural fertilizing procedures. Finally a professional crop for industrial applications could be growth on the sterile dump site only with a proper soil fertilization.
Keywords: Rosa canina, calcium, magnesium, coal dump rehabilitation.
Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE, Harriet Chinyelu NWIGWE, Sylvia Onyinyechi ANYADOH
Abstract. Thirty-one (31) samples each of diseased and healthy Tilapia fish (Oreochromis niloticus) from Otamiri River, in Nekede, Owerri West; Imo State Nigeria was examined to detect the presence of bacterial and helminth fauna. The intestine, liver, gill, tissue and skin of the fish were examined. Bacteriological analysis revealed counts of healthy diseased organs to fall between 6.0 x 104 – 3.5 x 107 cfu/g and 5.7 x 106 – 1.9 x 1011 cfu/g respectively. The result however indicated that the bacterial load of the diseased fish samples were higher than those of the apparently healthy fish. Identification tests of the probable bacterial isolates revealed the isolation of Vibrio sp, Renibacterium sp, Aeromonas sp, Klebsiella sp, Yersinia sp, Pseudomonas sp, Nocardia sp, Lactobacillus sp, Sporocytophaga, Staphylococcus sp, Mycobacterium sp, Serratia sp Proteus sp and Edwardsiella sp. Twenty-nine (29 ie 46.8%) of the 62 samples studied were found to be infected by helminth fauna identified as Camallanus sp, Procamallanus
beviconchus, Capillaria sp, Clinostonium tilapiae, Euclinostonium heterostoma, Cleidodiscus sp and Bothricephalus acheilognathi.
Percentage helminth infestation was found to be higher in males than females with sub adults recording the highest infection rate of 56.08%. Hence helminth infestation varies amongst age group. This study therefore reveals the bacterial & helminth load of cultured organs of Oreochromis niloticus with a view to provide information on the state of environmental and personal hygiene in the environment, the level of contamination of water and the security and/or insecurity nature of using fish as food.
Keywords: comparative assessment, bacterial load, helminth load, organs, diseased fish, healthy fish, Otamiri, Nigeria.
Toochukwu Ekwutosi OGBULIE, Harriet Chinyelu NWIGWE, Gideon Chijioke OKPOKWASILI,
Moses Onwukwe Edom IWUALA
Abstract. Effect of the symbiotic interaction between plants and non-indigenous isolates in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil was studied. Three organisms including Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans obtained from Nigerian Institute of Medical Research (NIMR) were used. The plants used for this study were four annual indigenous crops including two annual forage leguminous crop, vegetable cowpea (Vigna unguiculata var unguiculata) and velvet bean Mucuna pruriens; a cereal- maize (Zea mays) and a vegetable crop- fluted pumpkin (Telfaira occidentalis). Gas chromatographic (GC) analysis revealed the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of sample comprising of sterilized soil seeded with Bacillus subtilis, sterilized soil with Pseudomonas putida and sterilized soil with Candida albicans to be 1.721 mg/kg, 5,791mg/kg and 4.987mg/kg respectively. Treated soil seeded with B. subtilis recorded the least value followed by treated soil with C. albicans and treated soil with P. putida in that order. However, for Z. mays sample that was coated with B. subtilis recorded the least value of 2,339mg/kg.
By contrast though, amongst all the plant samples V. unguiculata coated with C. albicans recorded the lowest TPH value of 1,902mg/kg whereas T. occidentalis coated with P. putida had the lowest TPH value of 2.285mg/kg. Different alkane groups degraded during these remediation processes were also highlighted. C alkanes ranging from C8 – C12 were removed though some plants were not able to degrade C8 and/or C9 whereas C40 was generally degraded by all set ups. Statistical analysis depicting the effect of individual plant samples and non- indigenous microorganisms and different plants per individual non- indigenous microorganisms in degrading different concentration of crude oil at 5% significant difference and 95% confident limit was analysed using SPSS software. It showed that the performance of B. subtilis was more acceptable. Generally, the TPH values obtained from all the samples coated with non-indigenous isolates on comparative to the control samples with TPH of 9,487 mg/kg, 8376 mg/kg, 4517 mg/kg and 3828 mg/kg for V. unguiculata, Z. mays, T. occidentalis and Mucuna pruriens respectively had low TPH values.
Keywords: Bioremediation, crude oil, agricultural soil, crop plants, microorganisms, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH), Nigeria.
Kuldeep YADAV, Narender SINGH
Abstract. This paper describes an improved and rapid protocol for multiple shoot regeneration from nodal segments of wood apple (Aegle marmelos L.), a medicinal tree, cultured on Murashige and Skoog (1962) (MS) medium supplemented with various concentrations of auxins and cytokinins individually and in various combinations. BAP was found to be more effective than kinetin for shoot multiplication. Nodal explants responded most favorably at low BAP (2.0 mg/l) producing maximum number of shoots (8.0) and uniform shoots facilitating their simultaneous harvest for rooting. The medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 1.0 mg/l IAA was found to be most prolific combination of the treatments with regard to number and length of shoots. Creamish friable compact callus accompanying multiple shoots (8.0) was achieved from nodal segment on MS medium fortified with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 mg/l 2,4-D within 8 days of culture. The in vitro regenerated shoots were rooted best in half strength MS medium enriched with 1.0 mg/l IAA. The rooted plantlets were successfully established with 60% survival. Besides that the biochemical parameters, like chlorophyll, total sugars, reducing sugars and proteins were estimated in leaf tissue from both in vivo and in vitro raised plants in order to establish the sustainability of plants.
Keywords: Biochemical analysis, Multiple shoots, Nodal segments, Aegle marmelos, Auxins, Cytokinins.
Abbreviations: BAP - Benzyl amino purine; 2,4-D - 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; MS - Murashige and Skoog (1962) basal medium; NAA - a-naphthalene acetic acid; IBA - Indole-3-butyric acid; IAA - Indole acetic acid.
Gavril Marius BERCHI, Milca PETROVICI, Daniela Minodora ILIE
Abstract: This study aims to complete the aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha) list of species for Cefa Nature Park. Specimens were collected by monthly monitoring different types of habitats in the protected area. The study reveals an addition of 17 species, along with the 8 species previously described for this area. Was noted the presence of Aphelocheirus aestivalis Fabricius, 1794 and Cymatia rogenhoferi Fieber, 1864 species that have a sporadic presence in the Romanian fauna, being reported few records for these species. These data complete the information on this group collected on the other side of the Romanian-Hungarian border, in Körös-Maros National Park, where a number of 28 species were identified.
Because the goal is to create a protected area on both sides of the border, it is imperative to know this group in both protected areas, in order to create a common monitoring plan and common management measures.
Keywords: aquatic bugs, Cefa Nature Park, Crişana, faunistics, Heteroptera, Nepomorpha, true bugs.
Andreea BODOCZI FLOREA
Abstract. We studied the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance (AR) and multiple antimicrobial resistances (MAR) among the faecal bacteria found in the Arieş river (Romania) affected by strong anthropogenic pressures. Isolation and identification of E. coli were done by using enrichment media, selective media, and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by the disk diffusion method was conducted for 12 antimicrobial agents: ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, streptomycin, ceftazidin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, ticarcycline, ampicillin, nalidixic acid, nitrofurantoin, erythromycin, and norfloxacin. The data of the antimicrobial susceptibility reviled that all the studied E. coli strains were resistant to most of the tested antibiotics. The analysis of
antibiotic resistance frequencies has showed an incidence of 46.66% strains resistant to more than 4 different antibiotics. Moreover, a high incidence of multiple antibiotic resistances was detected in each of the studied samples.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, antibiotic resistance, multiple antibiotic resistances, Arieş River, water.
Monica MARIAN, Anca PETER, Lucia MIHALESCU, Zorica VOSGAN, Georgeta MATEI
Abstract. Asarum europaeum L. contains water-soluble substances which manifest allelopathic potential. Aqueous extracts from leaves and stems of Asarum europaeum were assayed to determine their allelopathic effects on Lycopersicon esculentum and Zea mays seeds germination and early seedling growth. The germination of the investigated seeds was found to be inhibited with increasing of the Asarum europaeum L. extract concentration. Moreover, the active substances extracted from leaves were found to be more inhibitory on the seeds germination in comparison with those extracted from stems.
Keywords: Allelopathy, Asarum europaeum, leaves, rhizomes, growth inhibitor
DIFFERENCES IN SOME CONSTITUENTS, ENZYMES ACTIVITY AND ELECTROPHORETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF DIFFERENT RAPESEED (Brassica napus L.) CULTIVARS
Hossam Saad EL-BELTAGI, Amal Amin MOHAMED, Bahaa El-Din Bastawy MEKKI
Abstract. Rapeseed is one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated in many parts of the world and used as a source of edible oil for human consumption. The present work reports some phytochemical and nutritional potentials of different rapeseed cultivars with a view to exploit their benefits for human nutrition. Five rapeseed cultivars namely; pactol, silvo, topas, serw 4 and serw 6 were analyzed for their phytochemical constituents (such as glutathione, ascorbate, phenolic, flavonoid contents) and some antioxidant enzymes activity (i.e. GPX; guaiacol peroxidase, APX; ascorbate peroxidase, CAT; catalase, SOD; superoxide dismutase) together with their protein profile. Among all cultivars significant variations in glutathione, ascorbate, phenolic and flavonoid contents were observed. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity of the extract was observed in topas cultivar. Minor variations were noticed in SDS-PAGE protein profile. The results of the study suggest the phytochemical and nutritional potentials of B. napus seeds for human and other animal uses due to their extensive consumption in the world.
Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes, DPPH, Phytochemical compounds, Rapeseed, SDS-PAGE, Total phenolic.
Abbreviations: BSA: bovine serum albumin, DPPH: 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl, PAGE: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, PVP: polyvinylpyrrolidone, SDS: sodium dodecyl sulphate, NBT: nitro blue tetrazolium, GSH: reduced glutathione.
Abstract. Within this study was emphasized the difference between the high degree of conservation of Glodeasa Forest Reserve and the impact of eutrophication as a result of human activities from Măluşteni Nature Reserve using lichen species diversity. The major human activities with a strongly impact on environment quality in Măluşteni Nature Reserve area are following: the livestock operations and the crop farming. A comparative assessment on the two protected areas pointed out a significantly differences regarding the preferences of inventoried lichen species to nitrophily. Thus, it was recorded a highest percentage (67%) of nitrophilous lichen species within Măluşteni Nature Reserve in contrast with a highest percentage (93%) of anitrophilous lichen species inventoried from Glodeasa Forest Reserve. The prevailing of some rare and threatened lichen species within Glodeasa Nature Reserve represent a sensitive indicator of highest environmental quality.
Keywords: lichen, environmental quality, nitrophily, anitrophily, Glodeasa, Măluşteni.
Valentina BULIMAGA, Valeriu RUDIC, Nadejda EFREMOVA, Svetlana DJUR,
Daniela ELENCIUC, Lidia DENCICOV, Vasile LOZAN
Abstract. Investigation of non-traditional sources of bioactive substances is one of the current directions of biotechnology development in many countries worldwide. This paper reports on the study of possibility of utilization of some coordination compounds of V(IV) and Co(III) as regulators of the content of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties: superoxiddismutase (SOD), phycobiliproteins, carotenoids and lipids in the biomass of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis. Natural antioxidants possess a broad spectrum of biological activity due to the ability to neutralize the negative effects of free radicals in living organisms. The obtained experimental results demonstrate that utilization of some coordination compounds of V(IV) at the spirulina cultivation contribute to the accumulation of β-carotene and lipids in spirulina biomass, as well as metallocomplexes of Co(III) have the beneficial effect on the content of phycobiliproteins, lipids and activity of SOD. The present study reveals that obtained biomass of cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis with high content of bioactive substances with antioxidant properties can be used for the elaboration of medical remedies for prophylaxis and treatment of diseases, caused by the negative effect of oxidative stress on live organisms and, also, for the elaboration of cosmetic preparations for the prevention of premature skin aging, protection against solar radiation and treatment of skin diseases.
Keywords: cyanobacterium Spirulina platensis, antioxidants, biologically active substances, coordination compounds of V(IV)
Kuldeep YADAV, Narender SINGH
Abstract. An efficient protocol for in vitro flowering of Spilanthes acmella Murr., a medicinally valuable plant, has been developed. Multiple shoot formation of up to 4 shoots was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with BAP (1.0 mg/l). Regenerated shoots were subcultured cultured on MS medium containing various concentrations of BAP alone or in combination with IAA. Presence of BAP in the culture medium was observed to be absolutely essential for induction of flower. Maximum percentage (50 %) of flower induction occurred when regenerated shoots were cultured on MS medium supplemented with BAP (2.0 mg/l) + IAA (0.5 mg/l) under photoperiod of 16/8 h (light/dark cycle).The 3-week intervals for three consecutive subcultures on this medium were efficient for flower induction. The regenerated shoots rooted best on 1/2 MS medium containing IBA (1.0 mg/l). Rooted plantlets were hardened and established in pots with 70% survival rate.
Keywords: multiple shoots, in vitro flowering, Spilanthes acmella, photoperiod, subculture time.
Abbreviations: BAP - Benzyl amino purine; 2,4-D - 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid; MS - Murashige and Skoog (1962); BM - Basal medium; NAA - a-naphthalene acetic acid; IBA - Indole-3-butyric acid; IAA - Indole acetic acid.
Sebastian TREITLI, Mărioara Nicoleta FILIMON, Claudia PETRUCEAN
Abstract. Seven sediment samples were collected from the river Mureş from the Arad-Pecica sector and were measured the following enzymatic activities: catalase, actual and potential dehydrogenase, urease and reduction of trivalent iron (Fe3+). All this activities were detected in all analyzed samples. Based on relative values of the enzymatic activities, the enzymatic indicator of the sediment quality (EISQ) was also calculated. The lowest value of EISQ was observed in point P6 in close proximity to the discharge area of waste water resulted from water treatment plant of the Pecica town, which could indicate a heavy pollution from the water treatment plant of the town. The pollution of Mureş river on the analyzed sector can be determined by livestock farms, gravels and water treatment plants which do not work properly.
Keywords: sediment, enzymatic activity, Mureş
Julieta - Emilia ROMOCEA
Abstract. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the regeneration potential of a Begonia semperflorens cv. ‘Ambassador’ White cultivated on Murashige-Skoog standard mineral medium, supplemented with different combinations of growth regulators. After 90 days of in vitro culture, multiple shoots with 13.3 mm diameter with 12.5 leaves over 6 mm in diameter and with 4-5 buds, were efficiently obtained from the subcultured small propagules on variant V2 - mineral basic medium culture MB - MS supplemented with 1.5 mg / l thidiazuron. Callus induction was favored only on experimental variant V3 - mineral basic medium culture MB - MS supplemented with a mix of 1.5 mg / l 3-Indolebutyric acid plus 1.5 mg / l thidiazuron, with highest diameter of callus of 9 mm.
Keywords: Begonia semperflorens, subcultivation, cytokine; auxine, micropropagation.
Adrian MESTECĂNEANU, Florin MESTECĂNEANU
Abstract. The authors show a preliminary study regarding the influence of the weather on the flight (soaring, gliding and flapping flight) of the white storks (Ciconia ciconia) in the spring migration across the Doamnei River hydrographical basin. The research is based on 289 observations and 3153 individuals observed during 1998 – 2010. The lapse of time, the temperature of the air, the atmospheric nebulosity, the type of clouds, and the wind intensity were considered. We stated that the presence of the ascendant air played a major role in the migratory flight, this rising air being used by birds in their economical flight that combine the soaring flight and the gliding one.
Keywords: white stork (Ciconia ciconia), flight, migration, Doamnei River hydrographical basin, Romania.
Nicoleta IANOVICI, Mălina DUMBRAVĂ-DODOACĂ, Mărioara Nicoleta FILIMON, Adrian SINITEAN
Abstract. The aim of our study was to determine the concentrations of Cladosporium, Alternaria and Stemphylium conidia in four urban areas in Romania: Braşov, Bucharest, Craiova and Timişoara. The sites differed in habitat characteristics, such as vegetation and microclimate. Airborne spores sampling was carried out in these cities by employing volumetric sampling. The samplings with the Lanzoni sampler were conducted in 2005. Spores were identified at the genus level only. Alternaria and Cladosporium have been identified as the most abundant and frequent aeroallergens in our cities. The totals of airborne spores recorded in this study show a considerable variation. The higher fungal spore concentrations occur in Bucharest and Craiova. The recorded levels of airborne spores in Bucharest and Craiova were close the concentrations that are accepted as threshold levels for provocation of clinical responses. The diurnal periodicity of aerial conidia showed a peak around midday and low counts in the dark. The present study will contribute to our knowledge of airborne spores in Romania.
Keywords: Cladosporium, Alternaria, Stemphylium, airborne fungal spores, aeroallergens, outdoor environment